Skin cells and proteins dating online
All of these examples point to a replacement rate of cells, that is characteristic of different tissues and in different conditions, but which makes it abundantly clear that for many cell types renewal is a part of their story.To be more concrete, our skin cells are known to constantly be shed and then renewed.The largest organ you have in your body isn't your stomach, although it sometimes seems that way.It isn't your brain, your intestines, or your liver.Table 1: Cell renewal rates in different tissues of the human body. Giving context through daily life replacement processes, we note that hair elongates at about 1 cm per month (BNID 109909) while fingernails grow at about 0.3 cm per month (BNID 109990), which is about the same speed as the continental spreading in plate tectonics that increases the distance between North America and Europe (BNID 110286).The question of cell renewal is one that all of us have intuitive daily experience with.The transcriptome analysis shows that 70% of all human proteins (n=19628) are expressed in the skin and 459 of these genes show an elevated expression in skin compared to other tissue types.
Some of the proteins predicted to be membrane-spanning are intracellular, e.g.
Red blood cells make their repetitive journey through our bloodstream with a lifetime of about 4 months (BNID 107875, 102526).
We can connect this lifetime to the fact calculated in the vignette on “How many cells are there in an organism?
, fictional scientists extracted dinosaur blood from a mosquito entombed in amber and used the DNA to clone a living menagerie of the extinct creatures.
Now real scientists have found what they think are red blood cells and collagen fibres in dinosaur bones kept for more than a century at the Natural History Museum in London.
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Additional proteins elevated in skin are expressed in melanocytes, hair follicles and dermal cells with functions including pigmentation, hair development and connective tissue structure. The distribution of all genes across the five categories based on transcript abundance in skin as well as in all other tissues.